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The brutal Winter of 1898/99

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The brutal Winter of 1898/99

Post by Toot on 2012-10-23, 7:59 pm

I posted this on another forum and you may have seen it before but I thought it belonged here also..Here is the source!

"History of all early weather events"
http://wattsupwiththat.files.wordpress.com/2011/09/weather1.pdf

Fast forward to the winter of 1898-99 and you run into the most extreme winter on record in the eastern US that I know of.

Sorry for the format

Winter of 1898 / 1899 A.D.

In the United States, the Mississippi River froze its entire length down to the
Gulf of Mexico. Some ice even flowed into the Gulf. In places like Cairo, Illinois the thickness of the ice was 13 inches (33 centimeters). The ice in New Orleans was two inches (5 centimeters) thick and one inch (2.5 centimeters) thick at the mouth of the Mississippi River. During four consecutive days the cold
weather was so severe that the event was referred to as “The Great Cold Wave”. On February 10, a strong storm came down from Canada. Logan, Montana recorded a low temperatures of -61° F (-52° C).

On February 11, at Quantico, Virginia recorded temperatures of -30° F (-34° C). Pittsburg, Pennsylvania saw a temperature of -20° F (-29° C). In Chicago, the ground froze to a depth of 5 feet (1.5 meters). The storm traveled up the East Coast depositing 2 feet (0.6 meters) of snow in Washington D.C. and 4 feet (1.2 meters) of snow in Philadelphia, New York, and Boston and 10 feet (3 meters) of snow in the Chesapeake Bay area. On February 14, Tallahassee, Florida saw temperatures as cold as -2° F (-19° C). Other locations that saw rare low temperatures include Dallas, Texas at -10° F (-23° C), Kansas City,
Missouri at -22° F (-30° C), and Scottsbluff, Nebraska at -45° F (-43° C).

In the United States in 1899, an area west of Galveston Harbor froze from the Barrier islands to the mainland. In the same cold snap, children were skating on the San Antonio River.

On 9-13 February 1899, a blizzard struck New York and the United States. Forty deaths were reported.

During the first half of February the most remarkable cold wave, or series of cold waves, in the history of the Weather Bureau traversed the United States from the north Pacific to the south Atlantic coasts, damaging crops and fruits in the Southern States to the extent of millions of dollars. During the first eight days of the month the lowest temperatures on record were reported at points in the north Pacific coast.

The following are some of the lowest temperatures observed during February 1899 in the United States:


Milligan, Ohio ( -39° F, -39.4° C)
Coalton, Ohio ( -38° F, -38.9° C)
McArthur, Ohio ( -38° F, -38.9° C)
Fort Collins, Colorado ( -38° F, -38.9° C)
Bismarck, North Dakota ( -37° F, -38.3° C)
Sault Sainte Marie, Michigan ( -37° F, -38.3° C)
Usk, Washington ( -36° F, -37.8° C)
Duluth, Wisconsin ( -36° F, -37.8° C)
Dayton, West Virginia ( -35° F, -37.2° C)
North Platte, Nebraska ( -35° F, -37.2° C)
Frankfort, Kansas ( -34° F, -36.7° C)
Saint Paul, Minnesota ( -33° F, -36.1° C)
La Crosse, Wisconsin ( -32° F, -35.6° C)
Birch Tree, Missouri ( -32° F, -35.6° C)
Zeitonia, Missouri ( -32° F, -35.6° C) (now called Gad’s Hill)
Woodstock, Vermont ( -30° F, -34.4° C)
Erasmus, Tennessee ( -30° F, -34.4° C)
Yankton, South Dakota ( -30° F, -34.4° C)
Boca, California ( -30° F, -34.4° C)
Flagstaff, Maine ( -30° F, -34.4° C)
Greensboro, Pennsylvania ( -30° F, -34.4° C)
Helena, Montana ( -30° F, -34.4° C)
North Lake, New York ( -30° F, -34.4° C)
Idaho Falls, Idaho ( -29° F, -33.9° C)
Morrisonville, Illinois ( -29° F, -33.9° C)
Abilene, Kansas ( -29° F, -33.9° C)
Greensburg, Kentucky ( -29° F, -33.9° C)
Monterey, Virginia ( -29° F, -33.9° C)
Wells, Nevada ( -29° F, -33.9° C)
Berlin Mills, New Hampshire ( -29° F, -33.9° C)
Earlington, Kentucky ( -28° F, -33.3° C)
Cheyenne, Wyoming ( -28° F, -33.3° C)
Silver Lake, Oregon ( -27° F, -32.8° C)
Parkersburg, West Virginia ( -27° F, -32.8° C)
Columbus, Indiana ( -27° F, -32.8° C)
Salem, Indiana ( -27° F, -32.8° C)
Pueblo, Colorado ( -27° F, -32.8° C)
Dodge City, Kansas ( -26° F, -32.2° C)
Dubuque, Iowa ( -26° F, -32.2° C)
Sunnyside, Maryland ( -26° F, -32.2° C)
Omaha, Nebraska ( -26° F, -32.2° C)
Monero, New Mexico ( -26° F, -32.2° C)
Winnebago, Illinois ( -25° F, -31.7° C)
Northfield, Maine ( -25° F, -31.7° C)
Chase, Maryland ( -25° F, -31.7° C)
Topeka, Kansas ( -25° F, -31.7° C)
Morgantown, West Virginia ( -25° F, -31.7° C)
Corning, Arkansas ( -25° F, -31.7° C)
Winslow, Arkansas ( -25° F, -31.7° C)
Beaver, Oklahoma ( -25° F, -31.7° C)
Fort Defiance, Arizona ( -24° F, -31.1° C)
Marquette, Michigan ( -23° F, -30.6° C)
Lafayette, Indiana ( -22° F, -30.0° C)
Denver, Colorado ( -22° F, -30.0° C)
Milwaukee, Wisconsin ( -22° F, -30.0° C)
Chicago, Illinois ( -21° F, -29.4° C)
Keokuk, Iowa ( -21° F, -29.4° C)
Truckee, California ( -21° F, -29.4° C)
Lexington, Kentucky ( -20° F, -28.9° C)
North Bridgton, Maine ( -20° F, -28.9° C)
Columbus, Ohio ( -20° F, -28.9° C)
Indianapolis, Indiana ( -18° F, -27.8° C)
Deckertown, New Jersey ( -17° F, -27.2° C) (now Sussex)
Valleyhead, Alabama ( -17° F, -27.2° C)
Cincinnati, Ohio ( -17° F, -27.2° C)
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma ( -17° F, -27.2° C)
Norwalk, Connecticut ( -16° F, -26.7° C)
Minden, Louisiana ( -16° F, -26.7° C)
Mount Pleasant, North Carolina ( -16° F, -26.7° C)
Leeds, Massachusetts ( -16° F, -26.7° C)
Saint Louis, Missouri ( -16° F, -26.7° C)
Amarillo, Texas ( -16° F, -26.7° C)
Washington, D.C. ( -15° F, -26.1° C)
Evansville, Indiana ( -15° F, -26.1° C)
Fort Smith, Arkansas ( -15° F, -26.1° C)
Aberdeen, Mississippi ( -15° F, -26.1° C)
Binghamton, New York ( -15° F, -26.1° C)
Louisville, Kentucky ( -14° F, -25.6° C)
Cairo, Illinois ( -14° F, -25.6° C)
Fort Sill, Oklahoma ( -14° F, -25.6° C)
Nashville, Tennessee ( -13° F, -25.0° C)
Detroit, Michigan ( -13° F, -25.0° C)
Little Rock, Arkansas ( -12° F, -24.4° C)
Tallapoosa, Georgia ( -12° F, -24.4° C)
Winnemucca, Nevada ( -12° F, -24.4° C)
Spokane, Washington ( -12° F, -24.4° C)
Erie, Pennsylvania ( -12° F, -24.4° C)
Santuck, South Carolina ( -11° F, -23.9° C)
Knoxville, Tennessee ( -10° F, -23.3° C)
Millsboro, Delaware ( -10° F, -23.3° C)
Birmingham, Alabama ( -10° F, -23.3° C)
New London, Connecticut ( -10° F, -23.3° C)
New Brunswick, New Jersey ( -10° F, -23.3° C)
Salt Lake City, Utah ( -10° F, -23.3° C)
Burlington, Vermont ( -10° F, -23.3° C)
New Haven, Connecticut ( -9° F, -22.8° C)
Atlanta, Georgia ( -8° F, -22.2° C)
Lewiston, Idaho ( -8° F, -22.2° C)
Albany, New York ( -8° F, -22.2° C)
Fort Worth, Texas ( -8° F, -22.2° C)
Cape May, New Jersey ( -8° F, -22.2° C)
Baltimore, Maryland ( -7° F, -21.7° C)
Portland, Maine ( -6° F, -21.1° C)
New York City, New York ( -6° F, -21.1° C)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ( -6° F, -21.1° C)
Shreveport, Louisiana ( -5° F, -20.6° C)
Santa Fe, New Mexico ( -5° F, -20.6° C)
Montgomery, Alabama ( -5° F, -20.6° C)
Charlotte, North Carolina ( -5° F, -20.6° C)
Carson City, Nevada ( -4° F, -20.0° C)
Boston, Massachusetts ( -4° F, -20.0° C)
Lynchburg, Virginia ( -3° F, -19.4° C)
Columbia, South Carolina ( -2° F, -18.9° C)
Tallahassee, Florida ( -2° F, -18.9° C)
Vicksburg, Mississippi ( -1° F, -18.3° C)
Mobile, Alabama ( -1° F, -18.3° C)
Block Island, Rhode Island ( 0° F, -17.8° C)
Nantucket, Massachusetts ( 2° F, -16.7° C)
Augusta, Georgia ( 3° F, -16.1° C)
Norfolk, Virginia ( 3° F, -16.1° C)
San Antonio, Texas ( 4° F, -15.6° C)
Olympia, Washington ( 5° F, -15.0° C)
Kitty Hawk, North Carolina ( 6° F, -14.4° C)
Pensacola, Florida ( 7° F, -13.9° C)
Roseburg, Oregon ( 7° F, -13.9° C)
Charleston, South Carolina ( 7° F, -13.9° C)
New Orleans, Louisiana ( 7° F, -13.9° C)
Savannah, Georgia ( 8° F, -13.3° C)
Galveston, Texas ( 8° F, -13.3° C)
Portland, Oregon ( 9° F, -12.8° C)
Jacksonville, Florida ( 10° F, -12.2° C)
Tucson, Arizona ( 17° F, -8.3° C)
Yuma, Arizona ( 28° F, -2.2° C)
San Francisco, California ( 34° F, +1.1° C)
San Diego, California ( 34° F, +1.1° C)
Key West, Florida ( 44° F, +6.7° C)
Fort Logan, Montana ( -61° F, -51.7° C)
Leech Lake, Minnesota ( -59° F, -50.6° C)
Fort Keogh, Montana ( -55° F, -48.3° C)
Detroit City, Minnesota ( -53° F, -47.2° C)
Park Rapids, Minnesota ( -51° F, -46.1° C)
Lovell, Wyoming ( -51° F, -46.1° C)
St. Paul’s Mission, Montana ( -51° F, -46.1° C)
Basin, Wyoming ( -51° F, -46.1° C)
Adel, Montana ( -50° F, -45.6° C)
Glasgow, Montana ( -50° F, -45.6° C)
Easton, Wisconsin ( -50° F, -45.6° C)
Pokegama Falls, Minnesota ( -50° F, -45.6° C)
Tower, Minnesota ( -49° F, -45.0° C)
Baldwin, Michigan ( -49° F, -45.0° C)
Humboldt, Michigan ( -49° F, -45.0° C)
Billings, Montana ( -49° F, -45.0° C)
Amherst, Wisconsin ( -48° F, -44.4° C)
Barron, Wisconsin ( -48° F, -44.4° C)
Knapp, Wisconsin ( -48° F, -44.4° C)
Steven’s Point, Wisconsin ( -48° F, -44.4° C)
Fort Laramie, Wyoming ( -48° F, -44.4° C)
Bemidji, Minnesota ( -48° F, -44.4° C)
Sandy Lake Dam, Minnesota ( -48° F, -44.4° C)
McKinney, North Dakota ( -48° F, -44.4° C)
Ewen, Michigan ( -47° F, -43.9° C)
Fort Berthold, North Dakota ( -47° F, -43.9° C)
Roseau, Minnesota ( -47° F, -43.9° C)
Camp Clarke, Nebraska ( -47° F, -43.9° C)
Doland, South Dakota ( -47° F, -43.9° C)
Forestburg, South Dakota ( -46° F, -43.3° C)
Thomaston, Michigan ( -46° F, -43.3° C)
Cody, Wyoming ( -46° F, -43.3° C)
Hallock, Minnesota ( -46° F, -43.3° C)
Crow Agency, Montana ( -46° F, -43.3° C) (near Little Big Horn)
Kipp, Montana ( -46° F, -43.3° C)
Shelby, Montana ( -46° F, -43.3° C)
Minnewaukan, North Dakota ( -46° F, -43.3° C)
Woodbridge, North Dakota ( -46° F, -43.3° C)
Manhattan, Montana ( -45° F, -42.8° C)
Willow River, Minnesota ( -45° F, -42.8° C)
Gering, Nebraska ( -45° F, -42.8° C)
Milton, North Dakota ( -45° F, -42.8° C)
Portal, North Dakota ( -45° F, -42.8° C)
Newfolden, Minnesota ( -44° F, -42.2° C)
Harney, South Dakota ( -44° F, -42.2° C)
Big Timber, Montana ( -44° F, -42.2° C)
Mancelona, Michigan ( -43° F, -41.7° C)
Sidnaw, Michigan ( -43° F, -41.7° C)
Waverly, Michigan ( -43° F, -41.7° C)
Holdrege, Nebraska ( -43° F, -41.7° C)
Poplar, Montana ( -42° F, -41.1° C)
Lost River, Idaho ( -41° F, -40.6° C)
Grayling, Michigan ( -41° F, -40.6° C)
Lake City, Michigan ( -41° F, -40.6° C)
Hay Springs, Nebraska ( -41° F, -40.6° C)
Williston, North Dakota ( -41° F, -40.6° C)
Republican City, Nebraska ( -40° F, -40.0° C)
Lathrop, Michigan ( -40° F, -40.0° C)
Swan Valley, Idaho ( -40° F, -40.0° C)
Rock Rapids, Iowa ( -40° F, -40.0° C)
Sibley, Iowa ( -40° F, -40.0° C)
Spirit Lake, Iowa ( -39° F, -39.4° C)
Pierre, South Dakota ( -39° F, -39.4° C)
Lawrenceville, Pennsylvania ( -39° F, -39.4° C)
Scipio, Utah ( -39° F, -39.4° C)
Pagoda, Colorado ( -39° F, -39.4° C)
Walden, Colorado ( -39° F, -39.4° C



The following is the thickness of the ice in rivers during the week of 13 February 1899


Moorhead, Minnesota 38.0 inches
St. Paul, Minnesota 30.0 inches
La Crosse, Wisconsin 32.0 inches
Dubuque, Iowa 27.5 inches
Davenport, Iowa 21.5 inches
Keokuk, Iowa 26.0 inches
Hannibal, Missouri 16.0 inches
Williston, North Dakota 32.0 inches
Bismarck, North Dakota 34.0 inches
Pierre, South Dakota 25.0 inches
Yankton, South Dakota 26.0 inches
Sioux City, Iowa 24.0 inches
Omaha, Nebraska 22.0 inches
Topeka, Kansas 15.0 inches
Kansas City, Missouri 13.0 inches
Wichita, Kansas 12.0 inches
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania 1.4 inches
Parkersburg, Pennsylvania 5.0 inches
Columbus, Ohio 8.0 inches
Memphis, Tennessee 1.0 inch
Fort Smith, Arkansas 9.0 inches
Little Rock, Arkansas 5.0 inches
New Orleans, Louisiana 2.0 inches
Brattleboro, Vermont 18.5 inches
Albany, New York 11.0 inches
New Brunswick, New Jersey 8.0 inches
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 12.0 inches
Lynchburg, Virginia 5.0 inches
Richmond, Virginia 6.0 inches
Columbia, South Carolina 2.0 inches



The following are accounts of the great storm that struck the United States during 9-14 February 1899:


New Orleans, Louisiana, reported: “the early vegetable crop was entirely destroyed, the orange crop was a total loss, and trees were killed, the cane crop was considerably injured, and fruit, aside from oranges, was seriously injured. The freeze benefited the rice land. The evening of the 13th there was one inch of snow on the ground, and ice two inches in thickness had formed.”

Alabama reported: “The month was the coldest on record. Several persons were frozen to death; stock suffered very much; in some counties cows, hogs, and goats froze to death, and poultry froze on the roost; large numbers of game birds perished, and swift-running streams, never before known to freeze, were covered with ice; the ice on ponds in middle counties was thick enough for skating on the 13th and 14th, while at Montgomery sleighing was indulged in for three days.”

According to the Weather Bureau in Atlanta, Georgia, while the entire state suffered severely, the damage was greatest in the southern half, where peaches, as well as a number of young trees, were killed. A covering of snow generally protected the grains. Livestock suffered, and in some counties cows and goats were frozen to death.

Jacksonville, Florida, reported that “on the night of the 12th, heavy sleet and snow prostrated telegraph lines north and cut off communication with Washington D.C. The cold was so severe over the western and parts of the northern districts that cattle, horses, and sheep died from exposure. The lowest temperature reported was 4° F below zero over the western district. The temperature fell to 29° F in the southern part of Dade County. The vegetable crop over central, northern, and western portions of the State has been destroyed; oats, peaches, and pears damaged, and probably the greater portion of young citrus trees over the north-central counties has been seriously damaged.”

Little Rock, Arkansas reported: “The extreme cold which swept over the State, like a breath from the frozen pole, from the 8th to, and including, the 16th, broke all records both as to the minimum temperature and the protracted character of the cold spell. Only once "within the memory of the oldest inhabitant" was it equaled, and that was in "the winter of 1863, when the Union forces hauled their cannon across the Arkansas River on the ice," and only once since the establishment of the Weather Bureau in this city was the river frozen over for a greater length of time. The records show but two previous occasions when the river was frozen over. On February 3, 1886, it was frozen over from shore to shore; in February, 1895, it was again frozen from shore to shore
from the 7th to the 17th, both dates included.”

New York City reported the following: “During Sunday night and Monday heavy snow fell without intermission. Up to midnight Sunday (12th), owing to light winds there had been but little confusion on account of snow, notwithstanding the ground was covered to an average depth of 14 inches. About 4 a.m. Monday (13th), a gale came on from the northeast, which continued with increasing force till 4:30 p.m., when it shifted to northwest and continued throughout the night
with hurricane velocity. The snow was very dry, and drifted badly; street traffic, which before had not been interrupted, was maintained with great difficulty, and finally abandoned altogether, with the exception of two cable lines. At 8 p.m. (13th), the conditions were worse. The average depth of snow on the ground was 23 inches, and it drifted to a depth of 6 feet in many places. After 8 p.m. the snowfall became lighter, and ceased during the early morning of February 14, with a fall of 15.6 inches during the storm, and a total depth on the ground of 24 inches. Monday was very generally observed as a holiday, and all business was suspended. When Tuesday morning came, with clearing weather and a resumption of business, the scene in lower Broadway was one of indescribable confusion. All traffic was confined to the narrow space covered by car tracks, while snow was piled on either side to a depth of 8 feet.”

New Jersey reported: “The extreme cold was followed by one of the most severe snowstorms on record. Snow began to fall on the evening of the 11th, and continued until early in the morning of the 14th. During this period it fell to the depth of from 30 inches in the southern to 44 inches in the northern portions. All railroad travel was suspended by the 13th, and country roads were impassable for several days, the drifts being from 3 to 8 feet high in many places.

Chicago, Illinois reported: “On account of the absence of snow, the ground in the vicinity of Chicago was frozen in many places to the depth of five and one-half feet, causing great damage by the freezing up of the water and gas mains and service pipes. Plumbers have been unable to meet the demands for their services, and the exigency has brought forward the novel method of thawing
out frozen pipes by the use of an electric current. Great suffering was caused by the severe cold among the poorer classes, and many people were frozen to death. Several steamboats which maintain winter service on Lake Michigan were blocked by the thick ice and unable to reach port for three or four days.”

Michigan reported: “The month was remarkable for excessive cold, it being the coldest on record. Lake Michigan was almost frozen over on the 15th. Much fruit was destroyed and considerable game, especially quail, partridge and ducks, perished on account of the extreme cold.”

Missouri reported: “As a result of the extremely low temperatures of the first half of the month peach buds were very nearly all killed and a large per cent of the trees badly frozen, many being killed to the snow line. Pears, plums, and apricots also suffered severely, a large portion of the buds being killed and, in some instances, the wood badly damaged. The hardier varieties of cherries generally escaped, but sweet cherries were killed to a considerable extent. Apples were reported badly damaged in some localities but it is believed that, as a rule, they were not seriously injured. The hardy varieties of grapes are generally safe. In most of the east-central, southeastern and south-central counties winter wheat was well protected by snow during the severe cold weather and was not seriously injured, except in localities where some of the late sown was killed, but generally throughout the northern and western sections the ground was nearly or quite bare and much of the crop was greatly damaged. Clover was also badly killed in some sections, especially where closely pastured, but in many counties was reported in good condition at the close of the month.”

Pennsylvania reported: “On the 11th all previous records of low temperatures were broken in nearly all sections of the State, and during the latter part of the day a severe snowstorm, accompanied by high winds, set in, and by the morning of the 12thrailroads and trolleys were so badly blocked that transportation of all kinds was almost suspended. The storm continued with unabated energy throughout the 12th and 13th, during which time traffic was at a standstill. The snow was piled up in high drifts and cities and towns were completely cut off from outside communication, except by wire, and the streets were almost impassable to pedestrians. There being no heavy lodgment of ice or snow on the telegraph lines, telegraph and telephone service was but little interrupted. Many employees were unable to reach their places of business in the cities, and in the coal regions, mines were shut down because the miners were snowbound in their
homes.” Niagara Falls experienced a major ice jam. According to the Post Standard of Syracuse, New York, the Niagara River was frozen over from Lewiston down to Youngstown for the first time in twenty-two years. An ice jam formed along the river on February 13 and the river was frozen solid on the 14th from the base of the Niagara Falls to Lake Ontario, except at the Rapids. Above Niagara Falls the ice was packed in high piles in the river. Much dynamite was exploded to drive the ice from the inlets leading to the different power plants. In the gorge at the foot of the Niagara Falls some of the ice hills were nearly fifty feet high and one was said to be over a hundred feet high. Such a large quantity of ice had not been seen in the Niagara River for many years.

This storm reached Cuba. Havana, Cuba reported much damage by storm along coast front. The water and waves were the highest known in twenty-five years, and a number of houses were washed away, and many others, including their furniture, damaged or ruined. No estimate of amount of damage can be made. Camps and corrals of United States troops along the oceanfront greatly damaged. No lives lost. The Havana newspaper Times of Cuba of 14 February 1899 reported: “Yesterday winds and waves created sad havoc in many a household on the beach. The huge waves toppled over three houses at the ends of Aguila and Laza streets as if they were eggshells. Several persons in the houses were badly injured. From 6 to 7 in the morning those who live on the beach noticed the increasing height and periods of the waves, and by 8:30 a. m. the water was dashing upon the houses skirting the edge of the shore. The waves mounted higher and higher as the wind became more savage, and for a few hours it seemed as if a small sized cyclone was at work. The day was unusually tempestuous at sea.”

The storm was felt even near the equator. Colon, Columbia (now Colon, Panama) reports “On the 13th a moderate storm of the northern type prevailed in the afternoon. The sea became high during the evening. The wind decreased somewhat during the night of the 13th, and gradually shifted to northeast during the morning of the 14th, backing to north in the evening. The sea continued high, and steamers left their wharves in the early morning and sought anchorage in the mouth of the harbor.”



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Toot
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Re: The brutal Winter of 1898/99

Post by tennessee storm09 on 2012-10-23, 9:07 pm

this is actually one of my analogs i am using this winter...

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Re: The brutal Winter of 1898/99

Post by tennessee storm09 on 2012-10-23, 9:56 pm

tennessee storm09 wrote:this is actually one of my analogs i am using this winter...
course i am joking on this... i dont think i could even imagine a winter like that... it would shut down todays society with a harsh winter like that... but i do still like 76 77... looks lke the pdo is heading slowly out of the negative range, thats another good characterisistic of that winter... i really prefer a neutral over a weak nino, especially in west tn... more precip gets further back west in a neutral enso .

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Re: The brutal Winter of 1898/99

Post by Stovepipe on 2012-10-23, 10:43 pm

That was a very interesting read. I'd be interested to see how modern infrastructure would hold up in such a scenario.

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Re: The brutal Winter of 1898/99

Post by shane03 on 2012-10-24, 7:21 pm

Great read. I'm glad it's time for winter weather again, I like having your winter storm research to read

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Re: The brutal Winter of 1898/99

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